Currently the two popular ways to practice Robinson's nonstandard analysis are the model-theoretic approach and the axiomatic/syntactic approach. It is sometimes claimed that the internal axiomatic approach is unable to handle constructions relying on external sets. We show that internal frameworks provide successful accounts of nonstandard hulls and Loeb measures. The basic fact this work relies on is that the ultrapower of the standard universe by a standard ultrafilter is naturally isomorphic to a subuniverse of the internal universe.
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© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Association for Symbolic Logic.