Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR) success rates and complications in endoscopic vs non-endoscopic approaches: a systematic review

Netanel Eisenbach, Ohad Karni, Eyal Sela, Achia Nemet, Amiel Dror, Einat Levy, Yanir Kassif, Relli Ovadya, Ohad Ronen, Tal Marshak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Epiphora due to refractory bicanalicular obstructions is typically managed by conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR) with or without the assistance of nasal endoscopy. However, the evidence for its benefit is unclear. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on the treatment of epiphora by CDCR was performed (March 1, 2018). All studies reporting original data on patients suffering from epiphora treated with CDCR surgery were included. Primary outcomes were success and satisfaction rates. Secondary outcomes were CDCR complications. A comparison was made between the results obtained in patients undergoing CDCR with vs without assistance of nasal endoscopy. Results: Fifty-four studies representing information on 2555 CDCR procedures were included in the systematic review. All the studies are case series, most of them retrospective. Lester Jones tube (LJT) is the most commonly used in CDCR (66.7%). The overall success rate with all studies included (n = 2555) was 88.9%; 90.8% (n = 890) in CDCR with assistance of nasal endoscope and 87.7% (n = 1575) in the non-endoscopic approach. The overall “tube displacement” rate, the most common complication, was 24.5% (n = 2522), 20.8% (n = 1575) tube displacement in CDCR with assistance of nasal endoscope vs 26.7% (n = 1575) in the non-endoscopic approach. Only 3 studies (5.5%) used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to evaluate epiphora improvement. Due to the low level of evidence and the high bias of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed. Conclusion: Based on the data available in the literature, CDCR is considered an effective procedure for treating epiphora due to proximal obstruction. Controlled and qualitative studies are needed to clarify the significance of the endoscope's contribution to CDCR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-194
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021

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  • CDCR
  • Jones tube
  • canalicular obstruction
  • conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy
  • epiphora
  • systematic review


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