This study is to compare the tissue distribution and metabolism of AN1284 after subcutaneous and oral administration at doses causing maximal reductions in IL-6 in plasma and tissues of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity of AN1284 and its metabolites was detected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Mice were given AN1284 by injection or gavage, 15 min before LPS. IL-6 protein levels were measured after 4 h. Using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method we developed, we showed that AN1284 is rapidly metabolized to the indole (AN1422), a 7-OH derivative (AN1280) and its glucuronide. AN1422 has weaker anti-inflammatory activity than AN1284 in LPS-activated macrophages and in mice. AN1284 (0.5 mg/kg) caused maximal reductions in IL-6 in the plasma, brain, and liver when injected subcutaneously and after gavage only in the liver. Similar reductions in the plasma and brain required a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, which resulted in 5.5-fold higher hepatic levels than after injection of 0.5 mg/kg, but 7, 11, and 19-fold lower ones in the plasma, brain, and kidneys, respectively. Hepatic concentrations produced by AN1284 were 2.5 mg/kg/day given by subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps that were only 12% of the peak levels seen after acute injection of 0.5 mg/kg. Similar hepatic concentrations were obtained by (1 mg/kg/day), administered in the drinking fluid. These were sufficient to decrease hepatocellular damage and liver triglycerides in previous experiments in diabetic mice. AN1284 can be given orally by a method of continuous release to treat chronic liver disease, and its preferential concentration in the liver should limit any adverse effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Donna Schorer-Apelbaum for performing the graphics and statistical analyses and Yulia Shenberger and Bruria Schmerling for the help with the LC-MS/MS analysis.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Amino-indoline derivative
- Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
- Metabolic oxidation
- Tissue distribution