Combining Multiple Knowledge Bases

Chitta Baral, Sarit Kraus, Jack Minker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

165 Scopus citations


Knowledge present in multiple knowledge bases might need to be reviewed to make decisions based on the combined knowledge. We define the concept of combining knowledge present in a set of knowledge bases and present algorithms to maximally combine them so that the combination is consistent with respect to the integrity constraints associated with the knowledge bases. For this we define the concept of maximality and prove that the algorithms presented combine the knowledge bases to generate a maximal theory. We also discuss the relationships between combining multiple knowledge bases and the view update problem.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-220
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1991
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received September 14, 1989; revised March 21, 1990. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant IRI-86-09170 and the Army Research Office under Grant DAAL-03-88-KW87. C. Baral is with the Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. S. Kraus and J. Minker are with the Department of Computer Science and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. IEEE Log 9144308.

Funding Information:
We wish to express our appreciation to the National Science Foundation for their support of our work under Grant IRI-86- 09170 and the Army Research Office under Grant DAAL-03- 88-K0087. We would also like to thank V. S. Subrahmaniar, for insightful comments on an earlier draft of the paper.


  • Consistent
  • integrity constraints
  • knowledge bases
  • logic programs
  • maximally combining theories


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