Infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are at risk of developing severe life-threatening infections if they are inadvertently given attenuated live vaccines. Concomitant appearance of two live vaccine-associated complications in one person is rarely reported. In this study, we present two SCID infants, who received BCG and oral polio vaccines according to their local immunization schedule early in life, before the diagnosis of immunodeficiency was made. Their clinical presentation, extensive immunological workup, genetic tests, and clinical disease course are presented. Both patients developed localized and disseminated infections originating from the BCG vaccine (BCGitis and BCGiosis, respectively) and in addition suffered from diarrhea and chronic fecal secretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus. Alarmingly, in case 2, the poliovirus was a type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in which both neurovirulence attenuation sites reverted to the neurovirulent genotype. These cases highlight the importance of early recognition of SCID by neonatal screening or thorough family anamnesis, and the need to further defer the timing of administration of attenuated live vaccines.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
- Immune deficiency
- Live vaccines