The biocatalyzed precipitation of an insoluble product produced on electrode supports is used as an amplification path for biosensing. Enzyme-based electrodes, immunosensors and DNA sensors are developed using this biocatalytic precipitation route. Faradaic impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry are used as transduction methods to follow the precipitation processes. While Faradaic impedance spectroscopy leads to the characterization of the electron-transfer resistance at the electrode, chronopotentiometry provides the total resistance at the interfaces of the modified electrodes. A horseradish peroxidase, HRP, monolayer-functionalized electrode is used to sense H2O2 by the biocatalyzed oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (1), to the insoluble product benzo-4-chlorohexadienone (2). An antigen monolayer electrode is used to sense the dinitrophenyl antibody, DNP-Ab, applying an anti-antibody-HRP conjugate as a biocatalyst for the oxidative precipitation of 1 by H2O2 to yield the insoluble product 2. An oligonucleotide (3) functionalized monolayer electrode is used to sense the DNA-analyte (4), that is one of the Tay-Sachs genetic disorder mutants. Association of a biotin-labeled oligonucleotide to the sensing interface, followed by the association of the avidin-HRP conjugate and the biocatalyzed precipitation of 2 leads to the amplified sensing of 4. The amount of the precipitate accumulated on the conductive support is controlled by the concentration of the respective analytes and the time intervals employed for the biocatalytic precipitation of 2. The electron-transfer resistances of the electrodes covered by the insoluble product (2) are derived from Faradaic impedance measurements, whereas the total electrode resistances are extracted from chronopotentiometric experiments. A good correlation between the total electrode resistances and the electron-transfer resistances at the conducting supports are found. Chronopotentiometry is suggested as a rapid transduction means (a few seconds). The precautions needed to apply chronopotentiometry in biosensors are discussed.
- Electron-transfer resistance
- Enzyme monolayer
- Faradaic impedance spectroscopy