Chronoamperometric measurements and modeling of nucleation and growth, and moving boundary stages during electrochemical lithiation of graphite electrode

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Abstract

Chronoamperometric studies of the stage 2 (LiC12) to stage 1 (LiC6) transition during electrochemical insertion of Li ions into graphite electrodes showed 5 distinct domains in their current vs. time curves. A linear increase of current at the beginning of domain II and a decrease in current with time within domain IY were identified with two-dimensional instantaneous nucleation of cylindrical grains of stage 1 into stage 2, their growth and further coalescence with the formation of the continuous moving boundary. We could calculate the following characteristic parameters: the nucleation time constant, τn = 990 s; the density of nucleation sites No = 2.5 × 108 cm-2, the velocity of the lateral growth of cylindrical nuclei, a = 3.6 × 10-8 cm s-1 and the thickness of the nucleation layer, d = 0.36 μm. After nucleation stage, the interphase propagates initially linearly with time and then proportionally to the square root of time (domain IV). At 30 °C the speed of propagation of the moving boundary between stage 1 and stage 2, dξ/dt′, is around 1.6 × 10-7 cm s-1. The activation energies of a, dξ/dt′ and D1 obtained from the related Arrhenius plots were found to be 0.13, 0.19 and 0.23 eV, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
Volume600
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2007

Keywords

  • Current transients
  • Electrocrystallization
  • Nucleation rate
  • Two-phase coexistence

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