Chip-based self-referencing using integrated lithium niobate waveguides

Yoshitomo Okawachi, Mengjie Yu, Boris Desiatov, Bok Young Kim, Tobias Hansson, Marko Lončar, Alexander L. Gaeta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


The measurement and stabilization of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO via self-referencing is paramount for optical frequency comb generation, which has revolutionized precision frequency metrology, spectroscopy, and optical clocks. Over the past decade, the development of chip-scale platforms has enabled compact integrated waveguides for supercontinuum generation. However, there is a critical need for an on-chip self-referencing system that is adaptive to different pump wavelengths, requires low pulse energy, and does not require complicated processing. Here, we demonstrate efficient fCEO stabilization of a modelocked laser with only 107 pJ of pulse energy via self-referencing in an integrated lithium niobate waveguide. We realize an f -2 f interferometer through second-harmonic generation and subsequent supercontinuum generation in a single dispersion-engineered waveguide with a stabilization performance equivalent to a conventional off-chip module. The fCEO beatnote is measured over a pump wavelength range of 70 nm. We theoretically investigate our system using a single nonlinear envelope equation with contributions from both second- and third-order nonlinearities. Our modeling reveals rich ultrabroadband nonlinear dynamics and confirms that the initial second-harmonic generation followed by supercontinuum generation with the remaining pump is responsible for the generation of a strong fCEO signal as compared to a traditional f -2 f interferometer. Our technology provides a highly simplified system that is robust, low in cost, and adaptable for precision metrology for use outside a research laboratory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)702-707
Number of pages6
Issue number6
StatePublished - 20 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding. National Science Foundation (IIP-1827720); Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (W31P4Q-15-1-0013); Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-15-1-0303, FA9550-19-1-0310, FA9550-19-1-0376); Vetenskapsrådet (2017-05309).

Funding Information:
Acknowledgment. Device fabrication is performed at the Harvard University Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS), a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI), which is supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF ECCS award no.1541959. The authors thank J. K. Jang and Y. Zhao for useful discussions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement


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