Characterisation of the environmental presence of hepatitis A virus in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Paul Kuodi, Jenna Patterson, Sheetal Silal, Gregory D. Hussey, Benjamin M. Kagina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the environmental presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: EBSCOhost, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Clinical Key and Web of Science were searched. Grey literature was sourced by searching the following electronic databases: Open Grey, National Health Research Database and Mednar. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR INCLUDING STUDIES: Cross-sectional and ecological studies reporting HAV environmental presence and conducted in LMICs between January 2005 and May 2019, irrespective of language of publication. DATA EXTRACTION AND DATA SYNTHESIS: Relevant data were extracted from articles meeting the inclusion criteria, and two reviewers independently assessed the studies for risk of bias. High heterogeneity of the extracted data led to the results being reported narratively. RESULTS: A total of 2092 records were retrieved, of which 33 met the inclusion criteria. 21 studies were conducted in Tunisia, India and South Africa, and the rest were from Philippines, Pakistan, Morocco, Chad, Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda. In Tunisian raw sewage samples, the prevalence of HAV ranged from 12% to 68%, with an estimated average detection rate of 50% (95% CI 25 to 75), whereas HAV detection in treated sewage in Tunisia ranged from 23% to 65%, with an estimated average detection rate of 38% (95% CI 20 to 57). The prevalence of HAV detection in South African treated sewage and surface water samples ranged from 4% to 37% and from 16% to 76%, with an estimated average detection rates of 15% (95% CI 1 to 29) and 51% (95% CI 21 to 80), respectively. Over the review period, the estimated average detection rate of environmental HAV presence appeared to have declined by 10%. CONCLUSION: The quality of included studies was fair, but sampling issues and paucity of data limited the strength of the review findings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019119592.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e036407
JournalBMJ Open
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • public health
  • virology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Characterisation of the environmental presence of hepatitis A virus in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this