Challenges in the Timely Diagnosis of Behcet’s Disease

Fadi Hassan, Helana Jeries, Mohammad E. Naffaa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, multi-systemic inflammatory disorder mainly characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and uveitis. As no pathognomonic laboratory test exists for BD, the diagnosis relies solely on clinical features. Over the years, great efforts have been invested in creating clinical diagnostic and classification criteria. The international study group criteria introduced in 1990 were the first true multinational set of criteria. Despite improving the ability to diagnose BD, these criteria still have limitations, including the inability to diagnose patients presenting without oral ulcers or presenting with rare manifestations of the disease. This led to the introduction of the international criteria for BD in 2013, which improved the sensitivity with minimal compromise on specificity. Despite the efforts made and as our understanding of the clinical manifestations of BD and genetic pathogenesis continue to evolve, efforts should be made to further enhance the currently accepted international classification criteria, perhaps by incorporating genetic testing (e.g., family history or HLA typing) as well as ethnic group-specific features.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1157
Issue number5
StatePublished - 11 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Behcet’s disease
  • criteria
  • diagnosis
  • international study group
  • the international criteria for Behcet’s disease


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