Catalyst-free synthesis of poly(furfuryl alcohol) using deep eutectic solvents

Thanh Phuong Cao, Chuc Nguyen Hang, Hieu Vu-Quang, Daniel Manaye Kabtamu, Subodh Kumar, Van Cuong Nguyen, Xuan Thang Cao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We report a catalyst-free pathway for the polymerization of furfuryl alcohol (FA) into poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) using a deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The DES prepared by mixing choline chloride (ChCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to polymerize FA in high yield under comparatively moderate reaction conditions. The FA conversion was found to increase with increasing reaction temperature and weight ratio of DES/FA. The highest yield of PFA (92.5%) was achieved at 80 °C in 4 h using a weight ratio of DES : FA of 10. FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, TGA, XRD and DSC analytical techniques were used to elucidate the structure and thermal behavior of the end product to confirm the successful formation of PFA. Moreover, we investigated the kinetics and calculated the activation energy for the reaction. A plausible mechanism for the reaction was proposed, focusing on the important role of the Ch+ cation to initiate the polymerization process. The main advantage of this work is the exploitation of DES systems as a recyclable medium that can efficiently catalyze FA polymerization without using any external solvent and catalyst.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3786-3793
Number of pages8
JournalNew Journal of Chemistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - 28 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is financially supported by the Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.


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