Capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage C foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 from India

Saravanan Subramaniam, Jajati K. Mohapatra, Biswajit Das, Gaurav K. Sharma, Jitendra K. Biswal, Sonalika Mahajan, Jyoti Misri, Bana B. Dash, Bramhadev Pattnaik

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 was first reported in India in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (B, C and D) of this serotype have been described until now. In this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype Asia1 viruses (n = 99) from India were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. All of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage C (designated as sublineage CR). The evolutionary rate of sublineage CR was estimated to be slightly higher than that of the serotype as a whole, and the time of the most recent common ancestor for this cluster was estimated to be approximately 2001. In comparison to the older isolates of lineage C (1993-2001), the re-emerging viruses showed variation at eight amino acid positions, including substitutions at the antigenically critical residues VP279 and VP2131. However, no direct correlation was found between sequence variations and antigenic relationships. The number of codons under positive selection and the nature of the selection pressure varied widely among the structural proteins, implying a heterogeneous pattern of evolution in serotype Asia1. While episodic diversifying selection appears to play a major role in shaping the evolution of VP1 and VP3, selection pressure acting on codons of VP2 is largely pervasive. Further, episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for the early diversification of lineage C. Recombination events identified in the structural protein coding region indicates its probable role in adaptive evolution of serotype Asia1 viruses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1751-1759
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Virology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2015
Externally publishedYes

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© 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.


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