We investigated transfer of artificial grammar learning in adults with and without dyslexia in 3 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants implicitly learned an artificial grammar system and were tested on new items that included the same symbols. In Experiment 2, participants were given practice with letter strings and then tested on strings created with a different letter set. In Experiment 3, participants were given practice with shapes and then tested on strings created with different shapes. Results show that in Experiment 1, both groups demonstrated utilization of pre-trained instances in the subsequent grammaticality judgement task, while in Experiments 2 (orthographic) and 3 (nonorthographic), only typically developed participants demonstrated application of knowledge from training to test. A post hoc analysis comparing between the experiments suggests that being trained and tested on an orthographic task leads to better performance than a nonorthographic task among typically developed adults but not among adults with dyslexia. Taken together, it appears that following extensive training, individuals with dyslexia are able to form stable representations from sequential stimuli and use them in a subsequent task that utilizes strings of similar symbols. However, the manipulation of the symbols challenges this ability.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Artificial grammar learning (AGL)
- Developmental dyslexia (DD)
- Orthographic/nonorthographic stimuli
- Statistical learning