## Abstract

Over the past 30 years numerous algorithms have been designed for symmetry breaking problems in the LOCAL model, such as maximal matching, MIS, vertex coloring, and edgecoloring. For most problems the best randomized algorithm is at least exponentially faster than the best deterministic algorithm. In this paper we prove that these exponential gaps are necessary and establish numerous connections between the deterministic and randomized complexities in the LOCAL model. Each of our results has a very compelling take-away message: 1. Fast δ-coloring of trees requires random bits. Building on the recent randomized lower bounds of Brandt et al. [6], we prove that the randomized complexity of δ-coloring a tree with maximum degree δ is θ(log_{δ} log n), for any δ ≥ 55, whereas its deterministic complexity is θ(log_{δ} n) for any δ ≥ 3.1 This also establishes a large separation between the deterministic complexity of δ-coloring and (δ+1)-coloring trees. 2. Randomized lower bounds imply deterministic lower bounds. We prove that any deterministic algorithm for a natural class of problems that runs in O(1) + o(log_{δ} n) rounds can be transformed to run in O(log^{∗} n - log^{∗} δ + 1) rounds. If the transformed algorithm violates a lower bound (even allowing randomization), then one can conclude that the problem requires ω (log_{δ} n) time deterministically. (This gives an alternate proof that deterministically δ-coloring a tree with small δ takes ω (log_{δ} n) rounds.) 3. Deterministic lower bounds imply randomized lower bounds. We prove that the randomized complexity of any natural problem on instances of size n is at least its deterministic complexity on instances of size √ log n. This shows that a deterministic ω (log_{δ} n) lower bound for any problem (δ-coloring a tree, for example) implies a randomized ω (log_{δ} log n) lower bound. It also illustrates that the graph shattering technique employed in recent randomized symmetry breaking algorithms is absolutely essential to the LOCAL model. For example, it is provably impossible to improve the 2^{O}(√ log log n) terms in the complexities of the best MIS and (δ+1)-coloring algorithms without also improving the 2^{O}(√ log n)-round Panconesi-Srinivasan algorithms.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Title of host publication | PODC 2016 - Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing |

Publisher | Association for Computing Machinery |

Pages | 195-197 |

Number of pages | 3 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9781450339643 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 25 Jul 2016 |

Externally published | Yes |

Event | 35th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC 2016 - Chicago, United States Duration: 25 Jul 2016 → 28 Jul 2016 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing |
---|---|

Volume | 25-28-July-2016 |

### Conference

Conference | 35th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC 2016 |
---|---|

Country/Territory | United States |

City | Chicago |

Period | 25/07/16 → 28/07/16 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2016 ACM.

### Funding

A more detailed version of this paper appears in [7]. This work is supported by NSF grants CCF-1217338, CNS-1318294, and CCF-1514383.

Funders | Funder number |
---|---|

National Science Foundation | CCF-1217338, CNS-1318294, CCF-1514383 |

## Keywords

- Coloring
- Distributed algorithm
- Symmetry breaking