Bladder neck closure in children: A decade of followup

Ezekiel H. Landau, Ofer N. Gofrit, Dov Pode, Oded Jurim, Ofer Z. Shenfeld, Mordechai Duvdevani, Eitan M. Gross, Paul A. Merguerian, Ran Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: Bladder neck closure necessitates lifelong clean intermittent catheterization. Concerns have been raised regarding well-being and compliance in patients on long-term clean intermittent catheterization. Noncompliance may result in subsequent hydronephrosis, incontinence, infection, cystolithiasis and perforation. We analyzed our long-term results with bladder neck closure followed at least 10 years for patient compliance with clean intermittent catheterization, upper tract preservation, continence, complications and subsequent procedures. Materials and Methods: All patients followed at least 10 years after bladder neck closure were included in this study. Results: Seven boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 7.0 years and urinary incontinence underwent bladder neck closure and continent urinary diversion between 1993 and 1998. The primary diagnosis was exstrophy in 5 patients, spinal dysraphism in 3, trauma in 2, sacral agenesis in 1 and a duplicated hindgut in 1. Mean followup was 12.4 years (range 10 to 14). All patients performed clean intermittent catheterization 4 to 6 times daily. Hydronephrosis improved or remained stable in the 11 patients who underwent bladder augmentation. Mild new hydronephrosis developed in 1 patient and resolved after increasing clean intermittent catheterization frequency. Bladder neck closure successfully cured incontinence in all of the last 6 patients who underwent modified bladder neck closure with a posterior bladder neck flap, while 2 of the earlier 6 bladder neck closures required revision for a subsequent 100% success rate. Additional operations were required in 6 patients. To our knowledge this is the longest followup after bladder neck closure reported in the literature. Conclusions: Patient compliance with long-term clean intermittent catheterization is good after bladder neck closure. Bladder neck closure provides excellent long-term safety for the upper urinary tract and continence. It is associated with relatively low morbidity, which is correctible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1797-1801
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Oct 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Catheterization
  • Compliance
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urinary diversion
  • Urinary incontinence


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