Beyond Push and Pull: The Sudan Peace Process as a Case Study

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This research examines Zartman's formulation of mutually hurting stalemate and mutually enticing opportunity as variables pushing and pulling parties toward agreement during the negotiation that took place between southern and northern Sudan between 2002 and 2005. This case shows that ripeness theory and formulating the push and pull factors indeed help clarify what brought the parties to negotiate and reach an agreement. However, we contend that the push and pull formulation in its current form might not fully account for the complexity of processes in ethno-political intractable conflicts, such as in Sudan, when the process is characterized by the parties' mutual distrust and the deep involvement of third parties, driven by their own domestic and foreign policy interests.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-61
Number of pages29
JournalInternational Negotiation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


  • Sudan
  • ethno-national conflict
  • mediation
  • negotiation
  • ripeness


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