Avalanche-size distribution of Cayley tree

Amikam Patron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Attacks on networks is a very important issue in developing strategies of eradicating spreads of malicious phenomena in networks, such as epidemics and fake information. This field of research is referred to as networks immunization. The traditional approach to evaluating the effectiveness of attacks on networks focuses on measuring macro parameters related to the entire attack, such as the critical probability of a percolation occurrence in the network pc and the relative size of the largest component in the network, known as the giant component, but not considering the attack on a micro perspective, which is the analysis of node removals, during an attack, themselves, their characteristics and results. In this paper we present and apply the last method of focusing on the micro scale of an attack. Based on the theory of percolation in networks, we analyze the phenomenon of an avalanche which results due to a single node removal from a network. An avalanche is a state in which a removal of a single node from the giant component of a network leads to the disconnection of additional nodes. This process significantly contributes to the fragmentation (immunization) of the network, comparing to the impact of the initial node removal alone. Specifically, we focus on the size parameter of an avalanche, which is the number of nodes that are disconnected from the giant component due to a single node removal. Relating to a random attack on a network of the type of Cayley tree, we derive analytically the distribution of the sizes of avalanches that occur during the entire attack on it, until the network is dismantled (immunized) and the attack is terminated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11311
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 13 Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes

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