Atomic Layer Deposition of the Solid Electrolyte LiPON

Alexander C. Kozen, Alexander J. Pearse, Chuan Fu Lin, Malachi Noked, Gary W. Rubloff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations


We demonstrate an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the solid electrolyte lithium phosphorousoxynitride (LiPON) using lithium tert-butoxide (LiOtBu), H2O, trimethylphosphate (TMP), and plasma N2 (PN2) as precursors. We use in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine growth rates for process optimization to design a rational, quaternary precursor ALD process where only certain substrate-precursor chemical reactions are favorable. We demonstrate via in-situ XPS tunable nitrogen incorporation into the films by variation of the PN2 dose and find that ALD films over approximately 4.5% nitrogen are amorphous, whereas LiPON ALD films with less than 4.5% nitrogen are polycrystalline. Finally, we characterize the ionic conductivity of the ALD films as a function of nitrogen content and demonstrate their functionality on a model battery electrode - a Si anode on a Cu current collector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5324-5331
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number15
StatePublished - 9 Jul 2015
Externally publishedYes

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© 2015 American Chemical Society.


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