Experimental mild heat shock is widely known as an intervention that results in extended longevity in various models along the evolutionary lineage. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly upregulated immediately after a heat shock. The elevation in HSP levels was shown to inhibit stress-mediated cell death, and recent experiments indicate a highly versatile role for these proteins as inhibitors of programmed cell death. In this study, we examined common genetic variations in 31 genes encoding all members of the HSP70, small HSP, and heat shock factor (HSF) families for their association with all-cause mortality. Our discovery cohort was the Rotterdam study (RS1) containing 5,974 participants aged 55 years and older (3,174 deaths). We assessed 4,430 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the HumanHap550K Genotyping BeadChip from Illumina. After adjusting for multiple testing by permutation analysis, three SNPs showed evidence for association with all-cause mortality in RS1. These findings were followed in eight independent population-based cohorts, leading to a total of 25,007 participants (8,444 deaths). In the replication phase, only HSF2 (rs1416733) remained significantly associated with all-causemortality. Rs1416733 is a known ciseQTL for HSF2. Our findings suggest a role of HSF2 in all-cause mortality.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
rosis Risk in Communities Study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019, N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55021, and N01-HC-55022. The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions.
Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study is funded by NIH contract N01-AG-12100, the NIA Intramural Research Program, Hjartavernd (the Icelandic Heart Association), and the Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament). Genotyping was conducted at the NIA IRP Laboratory of Neurogenetics.
(1998-2000) was supported as a "targeted project" (ICS110.1/ RF97.71) by the Italian Ministry of Health and in part by the U.S. National Institute on Aging (Contracts: 263 MD 9164 and 263 MD 821336).
type–genotype analyses were supported by the National Institute of Aging grant number R01AG029451 (PI: JMM). The Framing-ham Heart Study of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health and Boston University School of Medicine were supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study Contract No. N01-HC-25195 and its contract with Affymetrix, Inc for genotyping services (Contract No. N02-HL-6-4278). Analyses reflect intellectual input and resource development from the Framingham Heart Study investigators participating in the SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) project. A portion of this research was conducted using the Linux Cluster for Genetic Analysis (LinGA-II) funded by the Robert Dawson Evans Endowment of the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center. This research was additionally supported by the following grants: AG033193, AG081220, NS17950, P30AG013846, 1R01AG028321, and AR/AG 41398.
Cardiovascular health study: The CHS research reported in this article was supported by contract numbers N01-HC-85079 through N01-HC-85086, N01-HC-35129, N01 HC-15103, N01 HC-55222, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-45133, grant numbers U01 HL080295, and R01 HL087652 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Aging R01 AG031890 with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A full list of principal CHS investigators and institutions can be found at http:// www.chs-nhlbi.org/pi.htm. DNA handling and genotyping was supported in part by National Center for Research Resources grant M01-RR00425 to the Cedars-Sinai General Clinical Research Center Genotyping core and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grant DK063491 to the Southern California Diabetes Endocrinology Research Center.
ported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging. This research was supported by NIA contracts N01AG62101, N01AG62103, N01AG62106, and NIA grant 1R03AG032498-01. The genome-wide association study was funded by NIA grant 1R01AG032098-01A1 to Wake Forest University Health Sciences and genotyping services were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR). CIDR is fully funded through a federal contract from the National Institutes of Health to The Johns Hopkins University, contract number HHSN268200782096C.
Rotterdam study: The Rotterdam Study is supported by Netherlands Genomics Initiative/Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (050-060-810); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (904-61-090, 904-61-193, 480-04-004, 400-05-717, SPI 56-464-1419, 175.010.2005.011 and 911-03-012); Netspar—Living longer for a good health.
Study of health in Pomerania: SHIP is part of the Community Medicine Research net of the University of Greifswald, Germany, which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grants no. 01ZZ9603, 01ZZ0103, and 01ZZ0403), the Ministry of Cultural Affairs as well as the Social Ministry of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. Genome-wide data have been supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grant no. 03ZIK012) and a joint grant from Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany and the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The University of Greifswald is a member of the “Center of Knowledge Interchange” program of the Siemens AG.
- All-cause mortality
- Heat shock proteins
- Heatshock factor 2