Aspects of Nanotechnology for COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Its Delivery Applications

Pranav Kumar Prabhakar, Navneet Khurana, Manish Vyas, Vikas Sharma, Gaber El Saber Batiha, Harpreet Kaur, Jashanpreet Singh, Deepak Kumar, Neha Sharma, Ajeet Kaushik, Raj Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Coronavirus, a causative agent of the common cold to a much more complicated disease such as “severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV-2), and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”, is a member of the coronaviridae family and contains a positive-sense single-stranded RNA of 26–32 kilobase pairs. COVID-19 has shown very high mortality and morbidity and imparted a significantly impacted socioeconomic status. There are many variants of SARS-CoV-2 that have originated from the mutation of the genetic material of the original coronavirus. This has raised the demand for efficient treatment/therapy to manage newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 infections successfully. However, different types of vaccines have been developed and administered to patients but need more attention because COVID-19 is not under complete control. In this article, currently developed nanotechnology-based vaccines are explored, such as inactivated virus vaccines, mRNA-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, S-protein-based vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines, etc. One of the important aspects of vaccines is their administration inside the host body wherein nanotechnology can play a very crucial role. Currently, more than 26 nanotechnology-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in various phases of clinical trials. Nanotechnology is one of the growing fields in drug discovery and drug delivery that can also be used for the tackling of coronavirus. Nanotechnology can be used in various ways to design and develop tools and strategies for detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic and vaccine development to protect against COVID-19. The design of instruments for speedy, precise, and sensitive diagnosis, the fabrication of potent sanitizers, the delivery of extracellular antigenic components or mRNA-based vaccines into human tissues, and the administration of antiretroviral medicines into the organism are nanotechnology-based strategies for COVID-19 management. Herein, we discuss the application of nanotechnology in COVID-19 vaccine development and the challenges and opportunities in this approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number451
Issue number2
StatePublished - 30 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • COVID-19
  • diagnosis
  • mRNA
  • mutation
  • nanotechnology
  • vaccine
  • virus-vectored


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