Antibody-Mediated Immunogenicity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Following Priming, Boosting, and Hybrid Immunity: Insights From 11 Months of Follow-up of a Healthcare Worker Cohort in Israel, December 2020-October 2021

Michael Edelstein, Karine Wiegler Beiruti, Hila Ben-Amram, Naor Bar-Zeev, Christian Sussan, Hani Asulin, David Strauss, Younes Bathish, Salman Zarka, Kamal Abu Jabal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: We determined circulating anti-S severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers in a vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) cohort from Northern Israel in the 11 months following primary vaccination according to age, ethnicity, and previous infection status. Methods: All consenting HCWs were invited to have their IgG levels measured before vaccination and at 6 subsequent timepoints using a quantitative S1/S2 IgG assay. All HCWs with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested. We described trends in circulating IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) by age, ethnicity, timing of boosting, and previous infection status and compared strata using Kruskall-Wallis tests. Results: Among 985 vaccinated HCWs, IgG titers between 1 month post 2nd dose to pre-boosting gradually decreased in all age groups. Younger or previously infected individuals had higher initial post-vaccination IgG levels (P<.001 in both cases); differences substantially decreased or disappeared at 7-9 months, before boosting. The proportion of individuals infected prior to initiating vaccination and re-infected after dose 1 was comparable to the proportion of breakthrough infection post-dose 2 in those not previously infected (4.2 vs 4.7%). Pre-infection IgG levels in the 40 participants with breakthrough infection after dose 2 were similar to levels measured at the same timepoint in vaccinated HCWs who remained uninfected (P>.3). Post-dose3 IgG levels were more than 10-fold those 1 month post-dose 2. Conclusions: Immunity waned in all age groups and previously infected individuals, reversed by boosting. IgG titers decrease and reinfections in individuals with hybrid immunity (infection+vaccination) suggests they may also require further doses. Our study also highlights the difficulty in determining protective IgG levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E572-E578
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume75
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 24 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Israel
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccine immunogenicity
  • vaccines

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