Background: One main challenge in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is its increasing antibiotic resistance. Additionally, resistance rates vary between geographic areas and periods. However, data are limited since susceptibility testing is not routinely performed. Thus, it is valuable to gather data regarding H. pylori's resistance rates in Israel that would aid in better adjustment of treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included 540 H. pylori isolates, recovered from gastric biopsy samples of patients who had undergone endoscopy, during 2015–2020, at the Padeh Poriya Medical Center. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, rifampicin, and tetracycline was performed using the Etest technique. Data regarding participants' sex, age, and ethnic group were collected. For every antibiotic and for multi-resistance, generalized linear models were used to estimate crude and adjusted estimated differences in mean MIC and odds ratios (ORs) for every year, compared with the reference year 2015. Results: The highest resistance rates were for clarithromycin and metronidazole (46.3% and 16.3%, respectively). Patients above 18 had higher resistance rate to rifampicin and multi-resistance (3.3% and 14.8%), compared with patients under 18 (0.5% and 8.4%, respectively). Resistance rates for levofloxacin, rifampicin, and multi-resistance were significantly higher among Arab patients, compared with Jewish patients. During the 6-year surveillance, a significant annual trend in MIC for metronidazole and in ORs for metronidazole, levofloxacin, and multi-resistance were observed (after adjustment). During 2020 compared with 2015, significant increased ORs were observed for levofloxacin and metronidazole [5.72 (1.03–31.84); 4.28 (1.30–14.14), respectively]. Conclusions: In light of the remarkable changes in antibiotic resistance of H. pylori during the study's period and the increasing resistance rates to various antibiotics, it is very important to continuously monitor H. pylori antibiotic susceptibly. In order to increase eradication rates of this bacterium, therapy regimes must be based on an updated antibiotic resistance data.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Mr. Wadie Abu Dahoud for the statistical analysis.
© 2022 The Authors. Helicobacter published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- H. Pylori
- antibiotic resistance