Adenosine released during myocardial ischemia mediates cardioprotective preconditioning. Multivalent drugs covalently bound to nanocarriers may differ greatly in chemical and biological properties from the corresponding monomeric agents. Here, we conjugated chemically functionalized nucleosides to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimeric polymers and investigated their effects in rat primary cardiac cell cultures and in the isolated heart. Three conjugates of A 3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, chain-functionalized at the C2 or N 6 position, were cardioprotective, with greater potency than monomeric agonist Cl-IB-MECA. Multivalent amide-linked MRS5216 was selective for A 1 and A 3ARs, and triazole-linked MRS5246 and MRS5539 (optionally containing fluorescent label) were A 3AR-selective. The conjugates protected ischemic rat cardiomyocytes, an effect blocked by an A 3AR antagonist MRS1523, and isolated hearts with significantly improved infarct size, rate of pressure product, and rate of contraction and relaxation. Thus, strategically derivatized nucleosides tethered to biocompatible polymeric carriers display enhanced cardioprotective potency via activation of A 3AR on the cardiomyocyte surface.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NIDDK . This work was also in part supported by The Adar Program for the Advancement of Research in Heart Function and the Horowitz Foundation at Bar-Ilan University.
- Adenosine receptor
- Isolated heart