Aim: To investigate the association between circulating anti-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) autoantibodies and the exacerbation of tics in children with chronic tic disorders (CTDs). Method: One hundred and thirty-seven children with CTDs (108 males, 29 females; mean age [SD] 10y 0mo [2y 7mo], range 4–16y) were recruited over 18 months. Patients were assessed at baseline, at tic exacerbation, and at 2 months after exacerbation. Serum anti-D2R antibodies were evaluated using a cell-based assay and blinded immunofluorescence microscopy scoring was performed by two raters. The association between visit type and presence of anti-D2R antibodies was measured with McNemar’s test and repeated-measure logistic regression models, adjusting for potential demographic and clinical confounders. Results: At exacerbation, 11 (8%) participants became anti-D2R-positive (‘early peri-exacerbation seroconverters’), and nine (6.6%) became anti-D2R-positive at post-exacerbation (‘late peri-exacerbation seroconverters’). The anti-D2R antibodies were significantly associated with exacerbations when compared to baseline (McNemar’s odds ratio=11, p=0.003) and conditional logistic regression confirmed this association (Z=3.49, p<0.001) after adjustment for demographic and clinical data and use of psychotropic drugs. Interpretation: There is a potential association between immune mechanisms and the severity course of tics in adolescents with CTDs.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology|
|State||Published - 1 Oct 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The EMTICS project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration under Grant agreement No. 278367. The authors and EMTICS collaborators are grateful to all patients, their siblings, and parents who made this research possible.
© 2020 Mac Keith Press