The objective of this paper is to minimize the total cost of vaccine storage and distribution operations at centralized distribution centers (DCs) and at clinics so that clinics are provided with vaccines in a timely fashion while under resource and environment-protection constraints. A non-linear mathematical programming model is developed to improve the efficiency of large-scale influenza vaccination programs. The suggested model is tested and justified through computational experiments with real-life data from a Clalit HMO influenza vaccination case study. The investments in green (environment-protecting) activities recommended by the optimal plan are smaller than the expected monetary benefits associated with their effects. A possible application of this research is for optimizing vaccination plans for different subpopulations and various HMOs. Our vaccine supply chain model includes the costs of disposal, recycling, and utilizing clean technologies (i.e., low-pollution gas heating/cooling, electric transportation cars, energy saving policies). It integrates the operational cost/benefit parameters of vaccination programs with the costs/benefits of green activities.
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- Environment protection
- Green supply chain
- Influenza vaccination
- Mixed-integer programming model