An Optical 1×4 Power Splitter Based on Silicon–Nitride MMI Using Strip Waveguide Structures

Aviv Frishman, Dror Malka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This paper presents a new design for a 1 × 4 optical power splitter using multimode interference (MMI) coupler in silicon nitride (Si3N4) strip waveguide structures. The main functionality of the proposed design is to use Si3N4 for dealing with the back reflection (BR) effect that usually happens in silicon (Si) MMI devices due to the self-imaging effect and the higher index contrast between Si and silicon dioxide (SiO2). The optimal device parameters were determined through numerical optimizations using the beam propagation method (BPM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD). Results demonstrate that the power splitter with a length of 34.6 μm can reach equal distribution power in each output port up to 24.3% of the total power across the O-band spectrum with 0.13 dB insertion loss and good tolerance MMI coupler parameters with a shift of ±250 nm. Additionally, the back reflection range over the O-band was found to be 40.25–42.44 dB. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the incorporation using Si3N4 MMI and adiabatic input and output tapers in mitigating unwanted BR to ensure that a good signal is received from the laser. This design showcases the significant potential for data-center networks, offering a promising solution for efficient signal distribution and facilitating high-performance and reliable optical signal routing within the O-band range. By leveraging the advantages of Si3N4 and the MMI coupler, this design opens possibilities for advanced optical network architectures and enables efficient transmission of optical signals in the O-band range.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2077
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • O-band
  • back reflection
  • beam propagation method
  • multimode interference
  • optical power splitter
  • silicon nitride
  • strip waveguide


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