An investigation of the influence of thermal process on the electrical conductivity of LIFT printed Cu structures

O. Fogel, G. Bernstein Toker, G. Cohen-Taguri, P. Gergaud, F. Gaillard, Z. Kotler, Z. Zalevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

The electrical properties of copper tracks printed by laser-induced-forward-transfer (LIFT) are typically inferior to the bulk values. Several limiting factors have been indicated such as oxidation, droplet boundaries and grain boundaries. However, the relative contribution of each of these factors has not been determined. To improve the electrical properties of LIFT printed structures, an analysis of various factors is essential. Here, we concentrate on the effect of post-printing thermal treatment on LIFT printed copper structures. A reduction in electrical resistivity by a factor of ∼3 is obtained resulting in a value lower than 3 times the bulk copper value (1.68 μ • cm). Real time resistance measurements indicate that an efficient thermal annealing can be achieved at 200 °C-300 °C within a couple of minutes. The morphological changes associated with such thermal treatment were analyzed using HR-SEM and XRD and highlight the role of stress relief, grain growth and formation of new grains primarily at the inter-droplet interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Article number285303
JournalJournal Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume52
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 May 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • LIFT
  • annealing
  • copper
  • laser induced forward transfer

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