All-Solid-State Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Actuator Operating at Room Temperature

Evgeniy Makagon, Ellen Wachtel, Lothar Houben, Sidney R. Cohen, Yuanyuan Li, Junying Li, Anatoly I. Frenkel, Igor Lubomirsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dimensional change in a solid due to electrochemically driven compositional change is termed electro-chemo-mechanical (ECM) coupling. This effect causes mechanical instability in Li-ion batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. Nevertheless, it can generate considerable force and deformation, making it attractive for mechanical actuation. Here a Si-compatible ECM actuator in the form of a 2 mm diameter membrane is demonstrated. Actuation results from oxygen ion transfer between two 0.1 µm thick Ti oxide\Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 nanocomposite layers separated by a 1.5 µm thick Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 solid electrolyte. The chemical reaction responsible for stress generation is electrochemical oxidation/reduction in the composites. Under ambient conditions, application of 5 V DC produces actuator response within seconds, generating vertical displacement of several µm with calculated stress ≈3.5 MPa. The membrane actuator preserves its final mechanical state for more than 1 h following voltage removal. These characteristics uniquely suit ECM actuators for room temperature applications in Si-integrated microelectromechanical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2006712
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 18 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH

Funding

This work was supported in part by the BioWings project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 under the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) program with grant agreement No. 801267. I.L. and A.I.F. acknowledge the NSF-BSF program grant 2018717. A.I.F., Y.L., and J.L. acknowledge support by NSF Grant number DMR-1911592. This research used beamline 7-BM (QAS) of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. IL and E.M. acknowledge Mrs. Katya Rechav for TEM lamellar sample preparation and Mr. Ilya Makagon for graphical design of Figure 1. This research is made possible in part by the historic generosity of the Harold Perlman Family. This work was supported in part by the BioWings project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 under the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) program with grant agreement No. 801267. I.L. and A.I.F. acknowledge the NSF‐BSF program grant 2018717. A.I.F., Y.L., and J.L. acknowledge support by NSF Grant number DMR‐1911592. This research used beamline 7‐BM (QAS) of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under Contract No. DE‐SC0012704. IL and E.M. acknowledge Mrs. Katya Rechav for TEM lamellar sample preparation and Mr. Ilya Makagon for graphical design of Figure 1 . This research is made possible in part by the historic generosity of the Harold Perlman Family.

FundersFunder number
NSF-BSF2018717
National Science FoundationDMR‐1911592
Office of Science
Brookhaven National LaboratoryDE‐SC0012704
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
H2020 Future and Emerging Technologies801267
European Commission

    Keywords

    • actuation
    • chemo-mechanics
    • micro-electro-mechanical systems
    • oxygen-ion conductors

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