Streptococcal infection is a rarely recognized cause of nonrheumaticperimyocarditis. We report a case of a young patient who developed acute perimyocarditis as manifested by diffuse electrocardiogram changes, and markedly elevated cardiac enzymes, concurrently with streptococcal tonsillitis. Despite the dramatic presentation, the patient recovered uneventfully. We conclude that streptococci can involve the heart also directly by a bacterial component or toxin, and not only through a delayed immunologic mechanism as in rheumatic fever. Further studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of myocardial involvement during early stages of streptococcal infection.