Activity of carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides against Bremia lactucae

Yigal Cohen, Avia Rubin, Dror Gotlieb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Four carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides, mandipropamid (MPD), dimethomorph (DMM), benthiavalicarb (BENT) and iprovalicarb (IPRO) were examined for their effects on various developmental stages of Bremia lactucae, the causal agent of downy mildew in lettuce, in vitro and in planta. Spore germination in vitro or on leaf surfaces was inhibited by all CAA fungicides (technical or formulated). MPD was more effective in suppressing germination than DMM or BENT, whereas IPRO was least effective. CAA induced no disruption of F-actin microfilament organisation in germinating spores of B. lactucae. CAA applied to germinating spores in vitro prevented further extension of the germ tubes. When applied to germinated spores on the leaf surface they prevented penetration. Preventive application of CAA to intact plants inhibited infection. MPD was more effective in suppressing infection than DMM or BENT, whereas IPRO was least effective. Curative application was effective at ≤3 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not at ≥18 hpi. CAA (except IPRO) applied to upper leaf surfaces inhibited spore germination on the lower surface and hence reduced infection. CAA suppressed sporulation of B. lactucae on floating leaf discs and when sprayed onto infected plants two days before onset of sporulation. BENT and DMM were more effective in suppressing sporulation than MPD or IPRO. Epidemics of downy mildew in shade-house grown lettuce were suppressed by CAA. A single spray applied to five-leaf plants before transplanting controlled the disease for 50 days. The results suggest that CAA are effective inhibitors of spore germination and therefore should be used as preventive agents against downy mildew of lettuce caused by B. lactucae.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-183
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Plant Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2008


  • Benthiavalicarb
  • Cinnamic acid amides
  • Dimethmorph
  • Disease control
  • Downy mildew
  • Iprovalicarb
  • Lettuce
  • Mandelic acid amides
  • Mandipropamid
  • Oomycete
  • Valinamid carbamates


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