Academic expectations and actual achievements: the roles of hope and effort

Uzi Levi, Michal Einav, Orit Ziv, Ilana Raskind, Malka Margalit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, Psychological Inquiry 13(4):249–275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's (Journal of Management 38(1):9–44, 2012) social learning theory (with a focus on three self-efficacy (SE) constructs: academic SE, social SE, and emotional SE), were used as an integrated conceptual framework for predicting expected and actual academic performance. The sample consisted of 289 10th grade high school students (152 girls and 137 boys). The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provided support for the hypothesized modified model. The results demonstrated that hopeful thinking had a direct effect on grade expectations, which, in turn, predicted academic achievement. In addition, SOC, social SE, emotional SE, and academic SE were interrelated, but only emotional SE and SOC contributed directly to hope. Academic SE predicted effort, which also contributed to hope. Thus, the relations between students' investment of effort and actual grades were predicted indirectly through hopeful thinking and grade expectations. The implications for future research and the field of educational psychology of using hope, SOC, and SE as an integrated conceptual framework for predicting academic outcomes are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-386
Number of pages20
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychology of Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


  • Achievements
  • Expectations
  • Hope
  • Self-efficacy
  • Sense of coherence


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