A wavelength-scale black phosphorus spectrometer

Shaofan Yuan, Doron Naveh, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Fengnian Xia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

151 Scopus citations

Abstract

On-chip spectrometers with compact footprints are being extensively investigated owing to their promising future in critical applications such as sensing, surveillance and spectral imaging. Most existing miniaturized spectrometers use large arrays of photodetection elements to capture different spectral components of incident light, from which its spectrum is reconstructed. Here, we demonstrate a mid-infrared spectrometer in the 2–9 µm spectral range, utilizing a single tunable black phosphorus photodetector with an active area footprint of only 9 × 16 µm2, along with a unique spectral learning procedure. Such a single-detector spectrometer has a compact size at the scale of the operational wavelength. Leveraging the wavelength and bias-dependent responsivity matrix learned from the spectra of a tunable blackbody source, we reconstruct unknown spectra from their corresponding photoresponse vectors. Enabled by the strong Stark effect and the tunable light–matter interactions in black phosphorus, our single-detector spectrometer shows remarkable potential in the reconstruction of the spectra of both monochromatic and broadband light. Furthermore, its ultracompact structure that is free from bulky interferometers and gratings, together with its electrically reconfigurable nature, may open up pathways towards on-chip mid-infrared spectroscopy and spectral imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-607
Number of pages7
JournalNature Photonics
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

Funding

F.X. and S.Y. acknowledge financial support by the Israel Ministry of Defense. The measurements at Yale also leveraged some instruments acquired through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) with contract number FA9550-19-1-0109. D.N. would like to thank the Israel Science Foundation (grant number 1055/15) and the Directorate of Defense Research and Development at the Israel Ministry of Defense for the generous support of this research. Growth of hexagonal boron nitride crystals by K.W. and T.T. was supported by the Elemental Strategy Initiative conducted by the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT; grant number JPMXP0112101001), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (JSPS KAKENHI; grant number JP20H00354) and the Japan Science and Technology Agency Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST; grant number JPMJCR15F3). We also thank C. Chen, A. Levi, R. Snitkoff, O. Nager, B. Deng and C. Ma, and our previous group member X. Chen for their help and support.

FundersFunder number
Defense UniversityFA9550-19-1-0109
Directorate of Defense Research and Development at the Israel Ministry of Defense
Japan Science and Technology Agency Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceJP20H00354
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyJPMXP0112101001
Japan Science and Technology Agency
Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
Core Research for Evolutional Science and TechnologyJPMJCR15F3
Israel Science Foundation1055/15
Ministry of Defense

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