Inactivation of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels mostly occurs by fast N-type or/and slow C-type mechanisms. Here, we characterized a unique mechanism of inactivation gating comprising two inactivation states in a member of the Kv channel superfamily, Kv7.1. Removal of external Ca2+ in wild-type Kv7.1 channels produced a large, voltage-dependent inactivation, which differed from N- or C-type mechanisms. Glu295 and Asp317 located, respectively, in the turret and pore entrance are involved in Ca2+ coordination, allowing Asp317 to form H-bonding with the pore helix Trp304, which stabilizes the selectivity filter and prevents inactivation. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and Ca2+-calmodulin prevented Kv7.1 inactivation triggered by Ca2+-free external solutions, where Ser182 at the S2-S3 linker relays the calmodulin signal from its inner boundary to the external pore to allow proper channel conduction. Thus, we revealed a unique mechanism of inactivation gating in Kv7.1, exquisitely controlled by external Ca2+ and allosterically coupled by internal PIP2 and Ca2+-calmodulin.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Israel Science Foundation (ISF 1365/17) to B.A., who holds the Andy Libach Professorial Chair in clinical pharmacology and toxicology. J.A.H. was supported by an Israel Science Foundation grant 1500/16.
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