A summated rating scale for measuring city image

Shaked Gilboa, Eugene D. Jaffe, Donata Vianelli, Alberto Pastore, Ram Herstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


The literature about cities' marketing is replete with articles on the subject of city branding. Included in this literature are articles dealing with the subject of measuring city image, which is a precursor to the development of a city brand. However, many of the image studies lack validity or generalization. This paper presents a methodology for measuring city image, grounded on the development of a scale for this purpose. Based on convergent and discriminant reliability and validity analyses, factors were identified that comprise a city's image among residents and tourists in three cities: Jerusalem, Rome and Trieste. Four factors identified by residents are Municipal Facilities, Leisure, Security and Public Services. Among tourists five factors were identified: Caring, Tourism and Recreation, Security, Public Services and Leisure and Entertainment. Three corresponding factors were identified in both tourists' and residents' replies. The scale validation process indicated that residents and tourists have similarities and differences in their perception of a city. As such, the current finding suggests that the scales developed in this paper may be used when surveying both groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-59
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


  • City image
  • Rating scales
  • Residents
  • Scale development
  • Tourists


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