Background: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a rare but serious condition which affects neonates and is caused by monogenic defects of glomerular structural proteins or congenital viral infections. Several reports have established a causal relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) intrauterine infection and CNS, but thorough study assessing parameters has not yet been done. Methods: This study aimed to ascertain significant demographic, biochemical, serological, inflammatory and etiological parameters with 12 months follow-up to clinically identify and monitor neonates with HCMV-associated CNS and sought to decipher the phylogenetic nature of infecting strains. Differences between four patient groups (neonates < 4 weeks old) with or without CNS and HCMV infection were compared by unpaired t testing and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression was performed to assess statistical significance among individual groups. Maximum-likelihood–based phylogenetic analysis was performed with HCMV gH gene sequences to compare clinically isolated and referenced NCBI strains. This was further supported by analysis of effective number of codons (ENc), codon adaptation index (CAI) and mRNA structural variation. Results: Patients with HCMV-associated CNS were found to have significant variations in many studied parameters compared with controls. The majority of clinical strains formed a separate phylogenetic cluster defining them as somewhat distinct from standard reference strains, which was supported by the other analyses. Conclusion: This study defined parameters for monitoring cases of HCMV-associated CNS, which suggest the possible existence of a selection force acting and rendering these HCMV strains able to infect selective host tissues and cause specific disease types.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020, IPNA.
- Congenital nephrotic syndrome
- Human cytomegalovirus
- Natural selection