A cost-effective water-in-salt electrolyte enables highly stable operation of a 2.15-V aqueous lithium-ion battery

Meital Turgeman, Vered Wineman-Fisher, Fyodor Malchik, Arka Saha, Gil Bergman, Bar Gavriel, Tirupathi Rao Penki, Amey Nimkar, Valeriia Baranauskaite, Hagit Aviv, Mikhael D. Levi, Malachi Noked, Dan Thomas Major, Netanel Shpigel, Doron Aurbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Extensive efforts are currently underway to develop safe and cost-effective electrolytes for large-scale energy storage. In this regard, water-based electrolytes may be an attractive option, but their narrow electrochemical stability window hinders their realization. Although highly concentrated fluorinated electrolytes have been shown to be highly effective in suppression of water splitting, enabling significant widening of the applied potential range, they utilize expensive salts (e.g., lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide [LiTFSI] or lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate [LiOTf]); hence, they cannot be considered for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective aqueous electrolyte solution combining 14 M LiCl and 4 M CsCl that allows stable operation of a 2.15-V battery comprising a TiO2 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode. Addition of CsCl to the electrolyte plays a double role in system stabilization: the added chloride anions interact with the free water molecules, whereas the chaotropic cesium cations adsorb at the electrified interface, preventing hydrogen formation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100688
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 19 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
N.S. acknowledges the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities for financial support. The research presented in this paper was partially funded by the Israeli Smart Transportation Research Center (ISTRC).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


  • LiCl electrolyte
  • LiMnO
  • TiO
  • aqueous batteries
  • aqueous electrolytes
  • hydrogen evolution


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