The development of K-based layered oxide cathodes is essential for boosting the competitiveness of potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) in grid-scale energy storage. However, their service life is dramatically limited by interfacial instability issues, which is still poorly understood. In this work, amorphous FePO4 (a-FP) is built on K0.5Ni0.1Mn0.9O2 (KNMO) as the protective skin, whose elasticity for strain relaxation and the K-conducting nature guarantee its integrity during fast and constant K-ion insertion/extraction. The conformal coating leads to a robust interphase on the cathode surface, which qualifies excellent K-transport ability and significantly suppresses the mechanical cracking and transition metal dissolution. Breakthrough in cycle life of the K-based layered cathodes is therefore achieved, which of the amorphous FePO4 coated K0.5Ni0.1Mn0.9O2 (KNMO@a-FP) reaches 2500 cycles. The insights gained from the surface protection layer construction and the in-depth analysis of its working mechanism pave the way for further development of K-based layered cathodes with both bulk structural and interfacial stability.
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- K-ion batteries
- cathode-electrolyte interface
- conformal surface protection
- cycling stability
- layered cathode materials