Estimations of ecosystem-level evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 uptake in water-limited environments are scarce and scaling up ground-level measurements is not straightforward. A biophysical approach using remote sensing (RS) and meteorological data (RS-Met) is adjusted to extreme high-energy water-limited Mediterranean ecosystems that suffer from continuous stress conditions to provide daily estimations of ET and CO2 uptake (measured as gross primary production, GPP) at a spatial resolution of 250g m. The RS-Met was adjusted using a seasonal water deficit factor (f WD) based on daily rainfall, temperature and radiation data. We validated our adjusted RS-Met with eddy covariance flux measurements using a newly developed mobile lab system and the single active FLUXNET station operating in this region (Yatir pine forest station) at a total of seven forest and non-forest sites across a climatic transect in Israel (280-770g mmg yrĝ'1). RS-Met was also compared to the satellite-borne MODIS-based ET and GPP products (MOD16 and MOD17, respectively) at these sites.
Results show that the inclusion of the f WD significantly improved the model, with R Combining double low line g 0.64-0.91 for the ET-adjusted model (compared to 0.05-0.80 for the unadjusted model) and R Combining double low line g 0.72-0.92 for the adjusted GPP model (compared to R Combining double low line g 0.56-0.90 of the non-adjusted model). The RS-Met (with the f WD) successfully tracked observed changes in ET and GPP between dry and wet seasons across the sites. ET and GPP estimates from the adjusted RS-Met also agreed well with eddy covariance estimates on an annual timescale at the FLUXNET station of Yatir (266g ±g 61 vs. 257g ±g 58g mmg yrĝ'1 and 765g ±g 112 vs. 748g ±g 124g gCg mĝ'2g yrĝ'1 for ET and GPP, respectively). Comparison with MODIS products showed consistently lower estimates from the MODIS-based models, particularly at the forest sites. Using the adjusted RS-Met, we show that afforestation significantly increased the water use efficiency (the ratio of carbon uptake to ET) in this region, with the positive effect decreasing when moving from dry to more humid environments, strengthening the importance of drylands afforestation. This simple yet robust biophysical approach shows promise for reliable ecosystem-level estimations of ET and CO2 uptake in extreme high-energy water-limited environments.
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Acknowledgements. We thank the two anonymous referees for thoughtful comments and suggestions that contributed to the improvement of this paper. David Helman acknowledges personal grants provided by the Bar-Ilan University Presidential Office (Milgat Hanasi), the JNF–Rieger Foundation, USA, and the Hydrological Service of Israel, Water Authority. Shani Rohatyn acknowledges scholarships provided by the Ronnie Appleby fund, the Advanced School of Environmental Science of the Hebrew University and the Israel Ministry of Agriculture. We thank Efrat Ramati for helping with field work and data processing, Gerardo Fratini for helping with EddyPro, and Hagai Sagi and Avraham Pelner for technical assistance. We are also grateful to the Meteorological Service of Israel for providing meteorological data and to NASA for making the MODIS NDVI datasets public. This research was partly supported by the Hydrological Service of Israel, Water Authority (grant no. 4500962964). Flux measurements were made possible through financial support from the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Minerva foundation, JNF–KKL, the Hydrological Service of Israel, Water Authority, and the C. Wills and R. Lewis program in environmental science.
© Author(s) 2017.