A 3-Dimensional Approach for Evaluating the Influence of Poling Orientation on Piezoelectric Characteristics

Kamalpreet Singh, Saurav Sharma, Mohammad Talha, Rajeev Kumar

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3 Scopus citations


The present study proposes a 3-dimensional approach for enhancing the effective piezoelectric properties by poling orientation. The governing parameters for actuation and sensing applications are d31 and d31/ ε33, respectively. The effective magnitudes of these parameters, i.e., d31eff and d31eff/ε33eff , change with poling angles (roll and pitch angles). The combination of poling angles corresponding to the maximum magnitude of d31eff and d31eff/ε33eff is called the optimum poling angle for piezoelectric materials. BaTiO3 and KNN piezoelectric materials with tetragonal symmetry show an enhancement in d31eff/ε33eff and d31eff at an optimized poling angle (roll angle). The piezoelectric material, 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-0.33PT) with rhombohedral symmetry, shows a maximum improvement of 575% in d31eff/ε33eff at an optimum roll angle of 29° and a pitch angle of 60°. On the other hand, PMN-0.33PT shows an enhancement of 2034.44% in the d31eff coefficient at optimum roll and pitch angles of 50° and 60°. The effect of poling orientation on different piezoelectric materials with tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry has been studied for actuation and sensing applications. The experimental approach to achieve inclination of dipoles through the placement of electrodes for different piezoelectric materials is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5846-5856
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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© 2021, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.


  • Piezoelectric material
  • actuation
  • electrode configuration
  • poling orientation
  • sensing


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